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🔥🔥 Thermodynamics🔥🔥

🔥🔥 Thermodynamics🔥🔥

,🔥Basic Terminology🔥


Part of the universe under investigation.

⭐️Open System-

 A system that can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings.

⭐️Closed System- 

A system which permits passage of energy but not mass, across its boundary.

⭐️Isolated system- 

A system which can neither exchange energy nor matter with its surrounding.


Part of the universe other than system, which can interact with it.


Anything which separates system from surrounding.

⭐️State variables- 

The variables which are required to be defined in order to define state of any system i.e. pressure, volume, mass, temperature, surface area, etc.

⭐️State Functions-

 Property of system which depend only on the state of the system and not on the path. Example: Pressure, volume, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy etc.

⭐️Intensive properties-

 Properties of a system which do not depend on mass of the system i.e. temperature, pressure, density, concentration,

⭐️Extensive properties-

 Properties of a system which depend on mass of the system i.e. volume, energy, enthalpy, entropy etc.


Path along which state of a system changes.

⭐️Isothermal process- 

Process which takes place at constant temperature

⭐️Isobaric process- 

Process which takes place at constant pressure

⭐️Isochoric process-

 Process which takes place at constant volume.

⭐️Adiabatic process- 

Process during which transfer of heat cannot take place between system and surrounding.

⭐️Cyclic process- 

Process in which system comes back to its initial state after undergoing series of changes.

⭐️Reversible process- 

Process during which the system always departs infinitesimally from the state of equilibrium i.e. its direction can be reversed at any moment.

⭐️Irriversible Process- 

This type of process is fast and gets completed in a single step. This process cannot be reversed. All the natural processes are of this type.